Dominating and subordinate communication

type of talkfocusparticipationexample
dominating communication focal activity ratified participants a professor is giving a lecture to a group of students in a lecture theatre
subordinate communication nonfocal activity by-play ratified participants two students on the 6th row hold a "private" conversation
side-play non-ratified participants two students who happen to pass by appear in the doorway of the lecture theatre and exchange comments to each other
cross-play a ratified and a non-ratified participant a bystander in the doorway addresses a student in the lecture theatre
Based on: W. Hanks (1996: 207ff. W. Hanks, 1996, Language and Communicative Practices. )